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IntroductionIV

作者:林毅夫   出版社:未知  和讯读书
  Multilateral institutions and development agencies were the main advocates

  for this wave of thinking and infl uenced economic policies in developing

  countries through their programs. They based much of their policy

  advice and conditionality on stabilization and structural adjustment programs

  that refl ected the new dominant paradigm and promoted economic

  liberalization, privatization, and the implementation of rigorous stabilization

  programs. The results of these policies for growth and employment

  generation were at best controversial.

  Something strange and unexpected happened in the recent history of

  economic development: it was observed that developing countries that

  succeeded during the second half of the 20th century did not follow the

  dominant development thinking or the policy prescriptions of the fi rst and

  second wave. That puzzling fact convinced researchers to revisit some of

  the big assumptions underlying theories of economic development.

  As pointed out, countries that have led the world growth since the Industrial

  Revolution and developing countries that have successfully converged

  with developed countries all experienced profound structural changes in the

  composition of employment and the relative contribution of primary, secondary

  and tertiary sectors to aggregate growth. Drawing lessons from the

  intellectual advances, controversies, and disappointments of development

  economics, a third wave of development thinking, advanced by a small

  group of economists such as Dani Rodrik, Ricardo Hausmann, Andres

  Velasco, Philippe Aghion, Michael Spence, Ann Harrison, Célestin Monga,

  myself, and a few others is well under way. It aims at bringing structural

  change back to the core of development studies, and it emphasizes the

  important roles for the market and the state in the process of promoting

  economic development. These economists all agree that the market should

  be the basic mechanism for resource allocation, but that government must

  play an active role in coordinating investments for industrial upgrading

  and diversifi cation and in compensating for externalities generated by fi rst

  movers in the dynamic growth process.

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