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IntroductionV

作者:林毅夫   出版社:未知  和讯读书
  The “New Structural Economics” presented in this book is an attempt

  to set out this third wave of development thinking. Taking into account the

  lessons learned from the growth successes and failures of the last decades,

  it advances a neoclassical approach to study the determinants and dynamics

  of economic structure. It postulates that the economic structure of an

  economy is endogenous to its factor endowment structure and that sustained

  economic development is driven by changes in factor endowments

  and continuous technological innovation.

  The factor endowments in a country are given at any specifi c time and

  changeable over time. A country’s comparative advantages and thus its

  optimal industrial structure are determined by its factor endowments.

  Upgrading the industrial structure in a given country requires the upgrading

  of the factor endowment structure from one that is relatively abundant

  in labor and natural resources to one that is relatively abundant in capital,

  the introduction of new technologies, and the corresponding improvement

  in infrastructure to facilitate economic operations. The new structural

  economics argues that the best way to upgrade a country’s endowment

  structure is to develop its industries at any specifi c time according to the

  comparative advantages determined by its given endowment structure

  at that time. The economy will be most competitive, the economic surplus

  will be the largest, and the capital accumulation and the upgrading

  of factor endowment structure will be the fastest possible. For the private

  enterprises in a country to enter industries according to the country’s

  comparative advantages, relative factor prices must fully refl ect the relative

  abundance of those factors, and those prices can be determined only

  through competition in a well-functioning market. Therefore, the market

  should be the basic institution of the economy.

  For the introduction of new technologies, developing countries can turn

  their backwardness into an advantage by borrowing or adapting technologies

  that have already matured in richer economies. In contrast, advanced

  economies must produce at the global technology frontier and have to

  invest continuously in new R&D to achieve technological innovation.

  Hence developing countries have the potential to achieve a rate of technological

  innovation several times higher than that of advanced countries.

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